A look at the Nobel Prizes for Medicine and Physiology awarded from 1901 to the present shows that animal research played a key role in these important discoveries. Animal research must continue for similar medical advances to occur in the future.

Year Scientist Animal(s) Needed Contribution to Modern Medicine
1901 von Behring Guinea pig Development of diphtheria antiserum
1902 Ross Pigeon Understanding of malaria life cycle
1904 Pavlov Dog Animal responses to various stimuli
1905 Koch Cow, Sheep Studies of pathogenesis of tuberculosis
1906 Golgi, Cajal Dog, Horse Characterization of the central nervous
1907 Laveran Bird Role of protozoa as cause of disease
1908 Mechnikov, Ehrlich Bird, Fish, Guinea pig Immune reactions and functions of phagocytes
1910 Kossel Bird Knowledge of cell chemistry through work on proteins, including nuclear substances
1912 Carrel Dog Surgical advances in the suture and grafting of blood vessels
1913 Richet Dog, Rabbit Mechanisms of anaphylaxis
1919 Bordet Guinea pig, Horse, Rabbit Mechanisms of immunity
1920 Krogh Frog Discovery of capillary motor regulating mechanism
1922 Hill Frog Consumption of oxygen and lactic acid metabolism in muscle
1923 Banting, Macleod Dog, Rabbit, Fish Discovery of insulin and mechanism of diabetes
1924 Einthoven Dog Mechanism of the electrocardiogram
1928 Nicolle Monkey, Guinea pig, Rat, Mouse Pathogenesis of typhus
1929 Eijkman, Hopkins Chicken Discovery of antineuritic and growth stimulating
1932 Sherrington, Adrian Dog, Cat Functions of neurons
1934 Whipple, Murphy, Minot Dog Liver therapy for anemia
1935 Spemann Newt, Frog Organizer effect in embryonic development
1936 Dale, Loewi Cat, Frog, Bird, Reptile Chemical transmission of nerve impulses
1938 Heymans Dog Role of the sinus and aortic mechanims in the regulation of respiration
1939 Dogmagk Mouse, Rabbit Antibacterial effects of prontosil
1943 Dam, Doisy Rat, Dog, Chicken, Mouse Discovery of function of Vitamin K
1944 Erlanger, Gasser Cat Specific functions of nerve cells
1945 Fleming, Chain, Florey Mouse Discovery of penicillin and its curative of various infectious diseases
1947 Cori, Cori, Houssay Frog, Toad, Dog Catalytic conversion glycogen, role of pituitary in sugar metabolism
1949 Hess, Moniz Cat Functional organization of the brain as a coordinator of internal organs
1950 Kendall, Hench, Reichstein Cow Antiarthritic role of adrenal hormones
1951 Theiler Monkey, Mouse Development of yellow fever vaccine
1952 Waksman Guinea Pig Discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
1953 Krebs, Lipmann Pigeon Characterization of the citric acid cycle
1954 Enders, Weller, Robbins Monkey, Mouse Culture of poliovirus that led to development of vaccine
1955 Theorell Horse Nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes
1957 Bovet Dog, Rabbit Production of synthetic compounds and their action on the vascular system and skeletal muscles
1960 Burnet, Medawar Rabbit Understanding of acquired immunological tolerance
1961 von Bekesy Guinea pig Physical mechanism of stimulation in the cochlea
1963 Eccles, Hodgkin, Huxley Cat, Frog, Squid, Crab Mechanisms of control and the communication between nerve cells
1964 Block, Lynen Rat Regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
1966 Rous, Huggins Rat, Rabbit, Hen Tumor-inducing viruses and hormonal treatment of cancer
1967 Hartline, Granit, Wald Chicken, Rabbit, Fish, Crab Primary physiological and chemical processes of vision
1968 Holley, Khorana, Nirenberg Rat Interpretation of genetic code and its role in protein synthesis
1970 Katz, von Euler, Axelrod Cat, Rat Mechanism of storage and release of nerve transmitters
1971 Sutherland Mammalian liver Mechanism of the actions of hormones
1972 Edelman, Porter Guinea pig, Rabbit Chemical structure of antibodies
1973 von Frisch, Lorenz, Tinbergen Bee, Bird, Fish Organization of social and behavior patterns in animals
1974 de Duve, Palade, Claude Chicken, Guinea Pig, Rat Structural and functional organization of cells
1975 Baltimore, Dulbecco, Temin Monkey, Horse, Chicken, Mouse Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material
1976 Blumberg, Gajdusek Chimpanzee New mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of diseases
1977 Gullemin, Schally, Yalow Sheep, Pig Discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain
1979 Cormack, Hounsfield Pig Development of computer assisted tomography (CAT scan)
1980 Benacerraf, Dausset, Snell Mouse, Guinea Pig Identification of histocompatibility antigens and mechanism of action
1981 Sperry, Hubell, Wiesel Cat, Monkey Processing of visual information by the brain
1982 Bergstrom, Samuelsson, Vane Rat, Rabbit, Guinea Pig Discovery of prostaglandins
1984 Millstone, Kochler, Jerne Mouse Techniques of monoclonal antibody formation
1985 Brown, Goldstein Rats, Mice Discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism
1986 Levi-Montalcini Mouse, Chicken, Snake Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor
1987 Tonegawa Mouse embryo Discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity
1988 Black, Elion Mice, Dog, Rabbit, Monkey Discoveries of important principles for drug treatment
1989 Varmus, Bishop Chicken Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes
1990 Murray, Thomas Dog Organ transplantation techniques
1991 Neher, Sakmann Frog Chemical communication between cells
1992 Fisher, Krebs Rat, Rabbit Discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism
1993 Roberts, Sharp Rats, Mice Discoveries of split genes
1994 Gilman, Rodbell Rat, Cow, Rabbit, Turkey, Guinea Pig Discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells
1995 Lewis, Nusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus Fruit Fly Genetic control of early embryonic development
1996 Doherty, Zinkernagel Mouse Recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system
1997 Prusiner Mouse, Hamster Discovery of prions, a new biological principle of infection
1998 Fuchgott, Ignarro, Murad Rabbit Regulation of blood pressure with nitric oxide (NO)
1999 Blobel Mouse, Rat, Dog Discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell
2000 Carlsson, Greengard, Kandel Sea slug, Mouse Discoveries in signal transduction in the nervous system
2001 Hartwell, Hunt, Nurse Sea urchin, Frog Discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle
2002 Brenner, Horvitz, Sulston Roundworm Genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death
2003 Lauterbur, Mansfield Clam, Mouse, Dog, Rat, Chimpanzee, Pig, Rabbit, Frog Discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
2004 Axel, Buck Mouse, Fruit Flies Discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
2005 Marshall, Warren Piglet Discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in mouse, gerbil gastritis and peptic ulcer disease
2006 Fire, Mello Roundworm Discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
2007 Capecchi, Evans, Smithies Mouse, Chick Development of knock-out mice
2008 zur Hausen Hamster, Mouse, Cow Discovery of human papilloma viruses (HPV) causing cervical cancer
2008 Barre-Sinoussi, Montagnier Monkey, Chimpanzee, Mouse Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
2009 Blackburn, Greider, Szostak Frog, Mouse Discovery of a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells
2010 Edwards Rabbits, Rats, Mice, Hamsters Development of in vitro fertilization
2011 Beutler, Hoffmann, Steinman Mouse, Fruit Fly Discoveries concerning adaptive and innate immunity
2012 Gurdon, Yamanaka Frog, Mouse Discoveries that mature cells can be reprogrammed and how mature cells can be transformed into stem cells
2013 Rothman, Schekman, Sudhof Chinese Hamster Machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
2014 O’Keefe, Moser, Moser Rat Discovery of Brain’s inner GPS
2015 Campbell, Omura, Tu Mouse, Monkey Development of drugs used to treat malaria and roundworm parasites

Year

1901

Scientist

von Behring

Animal(s) Needed

Guinea pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Development of diphtheria antiserum

Year

1902

Scientist

Ross

Animal(s) Needed

Pigeon

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Understanding of malaria life cycle

Year

1904

Scientist

Pavlov

Animal(s) Needed

Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Animal responses to various stimuli

Year

1905

Scientist

Koch

Animal(s) Needed

Cow, Sheep

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Studies of pathogenesis of tuberculosis

Year

1906

Scientist

Golgi, Cajal

Animal(s) Needed

Dog, Horse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Characterization of the central nervous

Year

1907

Scientist

Laveran

Animal(s) Needed

Bird

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Role of protozoa as cause of disease

Year

1908

Scientist

Mechnikov, Ehrlich

Animal(s) Needed

Bird, Fish, Guinea pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Immune reactions and functions of phagocytes

Year

1910

Scientist

Kossel

Animal(s) Needed

Bird

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Knowledge of cell chemistry through work on proteins, including nuclear substances

Year

1912

Scientist

Carrel

Animal(s) Needed

Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Surgical advances in the suture and grafting of blood vessels

Year

1913

Scientist

Richet

Animal(s) Needed

Dog, Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Mechanisms of anaphylaxis

Year

1919

Scientist

Bordet

Animal(s) Needed

Guinea pig, Horse, Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Mechanisms of immunity

Year

1920

Scientist

Krogh

Animal(s) Needed

Frog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of capillary motor regulating mechanism

Year

1922

Scientist

Hill

Animal(s) Needed

Frog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Consumption of oxygen and lactic acid metabolism in muscle

Year

1923

Scientist

Banting, Macleod

Animal(s) Needed

Dog, Rabbit, Fish

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of insulin and mechanism of diabetes

Year

1924

Scientist

Einthoven

Animal(s) Needed

Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Mechanism of the electrocardiogram

Year

1928

Scientist

Nicolle

Animal(s) Needed

Monkey, Guinea pig, Rat, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Pathogenesis of typhus

Year

1929

Scientist

Eijkman, Hopkins

Animal(s) Needed

Chicken

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of antineuritic and growth stimulating

Year

1932

Scientist

Sherrington, Adrian

Animal(s) Needed

Dog, Cat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Functions of neurons

Year

1934

Scientist

Whipple, Murphy, Minot

Animal(s) Needed

Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Liver therapy for anemia

Year

1935

Scientist

Spemann

Animal(s) Needed

Newt, Frog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Organizer effect in embryonic development

Year

1936

Scientist

Dale, Loewi

Animal(s) Needed

Cat, Frog, Bird, Reptile

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Chemical transmission of nerve impulses

Year

1938

Scientist

Heymans

Animal(s) Needed

Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Role of the sinus and aortic mechanims in the regulation of respiration

Year

1939

Scientist

Dogmagk

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Antibacterial effects of prontosil

Year

1943

Scientist

Dam, Doisy

Animal(s) Needed

Rat, Dog, Chicken, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of function of Vitamin K

Year

1944

Scientist

Erlanger, Gasser

Animal(s) Needed

Cat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Specific functions of nerve cells

Year

1945

Scientist

Fleming, Chain, Florey

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of penicillin and its curative of various infectious diseases

Year

1947

Scientist

Cori, Cori, Houssay

Animal(s) Needed

Frog, Toad, Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Catalytic conversion glycogen, role of pituitary in sugar metabolism

Year

1949

Scientist

Hess, Moniz

Animal(s) Needed

Cat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Functional organization of the brain as a coordinator of internal organs

Year

1950

Scientist

Kendall, Hench, Reichstein

Animal(s) Needed

Cow

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Antiarthritic role of adrenal hormones

Year

1951

Scientist

Theiler

Animal(s) Needed

Monkey, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Development of yellow fever vaccine

Year

1952

Scientist

Waksman

Animal(s) Needed

Guinea Pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis

Year

1953

Scientist

Krebs, Lipmann

Animal(s) Needed

Pigeon

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Characterization of the citric acid cycle

Year

1954

Scientist

Enders, Weller, Robbins

Animal(s) Needed

Monkey, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Culture of poliovirus that led to development of vaccine

Year

1955

Scientist

Theorell

Animal(s) Needed

Horse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes

Year

1957

Scientist

Bovet

Animal(s) Needed

Dog, Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Production of synthetic compounds and their action on the vascular system and skeletal muscles

Year

1960

Scientist

Burnet, Medawar

Animal(s) Needed

Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Understanding of acquired immunological tolerance

Year

1961

Scientist

von Bekesy

Animal(s) Needed

Guinea pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Physical mechanism of stimulation in the cochlea

Year

1963

Scientist

Eccles, Hodgkin, Huxley

Animal(s) Needed

Cat, Frog, Squid, Crab

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Mechanisms of control and the communication between nerve cells

Year

1964

Scientist

Block, Lynen

Animal(s) Needed

Rat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism

Year

1966

Scientist

Rous, Huggins

Animal(s) Needed

Rat, Rabbit, Hen

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Tumor-inducing viruses and hormonal treatment of cancer

Year

1967

Scientist

Hartline, Granit, Wald

Animal(s) Needed

Chicken, Rabbit, Fish, Crab

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Primary physiological and chemical processes of vision

Year

1968

Scientist

Holley, Khorana, Nirenberg

Animal(s) Needed

Rat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Interpretation of genetic code and its role in protein synthesis

Year

1970

Scientist

Katz, von Euler, Axelrod

Animal(s) Needed

Cat, Rat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Mechanism of storage and release of nerve transmitters

Year

1971

Scientist

Sutherland

Animal(s) Needed

Mammalian liver

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Mechanism of the actions of hormones

Year

1972

Scientist

Edelman, Porter

Animal(s) Needed

Guinea pig, Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Chemical structure of antibodies

Year

1973

Scientist

von Frisch, Lorenz, Tinbergen

Animal(s) Needed

Bee, Bird, Fish

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Organization of social and behavior patterns in animals

Year

1974

Scientist

de Duve, Palade, Claude

Animal(s) Needed

Chicken, Guinea Pig, Rat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Structural and functional organization of cells

Year

1975

Scientist

Baltimore, Dulbecco, Temin

Animal(s) Needed

Monkey, Horse, Chicken, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Interaction between tumor viruses and genetic material

Year

1976

Scientist

Blumberg, Gajdusek

Animal(s) Needed

Chimpanzee

Contribution to Modern Medicine

New mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of diseases

Year

1977

Scientist

Gullemin, Schally, Yalow

Animal(s) Needed

Sheep, Pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain

Year

1979

Scientist

Cormack, Hounsfield

Animal(s) Needed

Pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Development of computer assisted tomography (CAT scan)

Year

1980

Scientist

Benacerraf, Dausset, Snell

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Guinea Pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Identification of histocompatibility antigens and mechanism of action

Year

1981

Scientist

Sperry, Hubell, Wiesel

Animal(s) Needed

Cat, Monkey

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Processing of visual information by the brain

Year

1982

Scientist

Bergstrom, Samuelsson, Vane

Animal(s) Needed

Rat, Rabbit, Guinea Pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of prostaglandins

Year

1984

Scientist

Millstone, Kochler, Jerne

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Techniques of monoclonal antibody formation

Year

1985

Scientist

Brown, Goldstein

Animal(s) Needed

Rats, Mice

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism

Year

1986

Scientist

Levi-Montalcini

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Chicken, Snake

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor

Year

1987

Scientist

Tonegawa

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse embryo

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity

Year

1988

Scientist

Black, Elion

Animal(s) Needed

Mice, Dog, Rabbit, Monkey

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries of important principles for drug treatment

Year

1989

Scientist

Varmus, Bishop

Animal(s) Needed

Chicken

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes

Year

1990

Scientist

Murray, Thomas

Animal(s) Needed

Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Organ transplantation techniques

Year

1991

Scientist

Neher, Sakmann

Animal(s) Needed

Frog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Chemical communication between cells

Year

1992

Scientist

Fisher, Krebs

Animal(s) Needed

Rat, Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism

Year

1993

Scientist

Roberts, Sharp

Animal(s) Needed

Rats, Mice

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries of split genes

Year

1994

Scientist

Gilman, Rodbell

Animal(s) Needed

Rat, Cow, Rabbit, Turkey, Guinea Pig

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells

Year

1995

Scientist

Lewis, Nusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus

Animal(s) Needed

Fruit Fly

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Genetic control of early embryonic development

Year

1996

Scientist

Doherty, Zinkernagel

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system

Year

1997

Scientist

Prusiner

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Hamster

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of prions, a new biological principle of infection

Year

1998

Scientist

Fuchgott, Ignarro, Murad

Animal(s) Needed

Rabbit

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Regulation of blood pressure with nitric oxide (NO)

Year

1999

Scientist

Blobel

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Rat, Dog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell

Year

2000

Scientist

Carlsson, Greengard, Kandel

Animal(s) Needed

Sea slug, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries in signal transduction in the nervous system

Year

2001

Scientist

Hartwell, Hunt, Nurse

Animal(s) Needed

Sea urchin, Frog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle

Year

2002

Scientist

Brenner, Horvitz, Sulston

Animal(s) Needed

Roundworm

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death

Year

2003

Scientist

Lauterbur, Mansfield

Animal(s) Needed

Clam, Mouse, Dog, Rat, Chimpanzee, Pig, Rabbit, Frog

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Year

2004

Scientist

Axel, Buck

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Fruit Flies

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

Year

2005

Scientist

Marshall, Warren

Animal(s) Needed

Piglet

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in mouse, gerbil gastritis and peptic ulcer disease

Year

2006

Scientist

Fire, Mello

Animal(s) Needed

Roundworm

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA

Year

2007

Scientist

Capecchi, Evans, Smithies

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Chick

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Development of knock-out mice

Year

2008

Scientist

zur Hausen

Animal(s) Needed

Hamster, Mouse, Cow

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of human papilloma viruses (HPV) causing cervical cancer

Year

2008

Scientist

Barre-Sinoussi, Montagnier

Animal(s) Needed

Monkey, Chimpanzee, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Year

2009

Scientist

Blackburn, Greider, Szostak

Animal(s) Needed

Frog, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells

Year

2010

Scientist

Edwards

Animal(s) Needed

Rabbits, Rats, Mice, Hamsters

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Development of in vitro fertilization

Year

2011

Scientist

Beutler, Hoffmann, Steinman

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Fruit Fly

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries concerning adaptive and innate immunity

Year

2012

Scientist

Gurdon, Yamanaka

Animal(s) Needed

Frog, Mouse

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discoveries that mature cells can be reprogrammed and how mature cells can be transformed into stem cells

Year

2013

Scientist

Rothman, Schekman, Sudhof

Animal(s) Needed

Chinese Hamster

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells

Year

2014

Scientist

O’Keefe, Moser, Moser

Animal(s) Needed

Rat

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Discovery of Brain’s inner GPS

Year

2015

Scientist

Campbell, Omura, Tu

Animal(s) Needed

Mouse, Monkey

Contribution to Modern Medicine

Development of drugs used to treat malaria and roundworm parasites

For more information on these and other Nobel Prize winners, visit The Nobel Foundation at nobelprize.org